[HOME] [INDEXES] < Life < Insecta < Lepidoptera < Ditrysia < Pyraloidea < Crambidae < Scopariinae
Scoparia Haworth, 1811
Scoparia Haworth, 1811; Lepid. Britannica (3): 498, TS: Tinea pyralella Denis & Schiffermüller
Scopea Haworth, 1828; 590 (repl.)
= ; [NACL, 67]; [AUCL]; [GlobIZ]
Eudorea Curtis, 1827; British Entomology: 170 (repl.), TS: TInea pyralella Denis & Schiffermüller
= ; Hampson, 1897, Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1897 : 229; [NACL, 67]; [AUCL]; [GlobIZ]
Cholius Guenée, 1845; 332, TS: Pyralis ochrealis Denis & Schiffermüller
= ; [NACL, 67]; [AUCL]
Phegea Gistl, 1848; ix (repl.)
= ; [AUCL]; [GlobIZ]
Epileucia Stephens, 1852; 5
= ; [GlobIZ]
Tetraprosopus Butler, 1882; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) 9 (50) : 97, TS: Tetraprosopus meyrickii Butler
= ; [NACL, 67]; [AUCL]; [GlobIZ]
Xeroscopa Meyrick, 1884; Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1884 (3): 349, TS: Scoparia ejuncida Knaggs
= ; [NACL, 67]; [AUCL]; [GlobIZ]
Eudoria Chapman, 1912; 507 (emend.)
= ; [AUCL]; [GlobIZ]
Eudoroea ; Bruand, [1851], 26 (missp.)
Xeroscopa (Scopariinae) ; Hampson, 1897, Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1897 : 225
Tetraprosopus (Scopariinae) ; Hampson, 1897, Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1897 : 227
Cholius (Scopariinae) ; [GlobIZ]
Scoparia (Scopariinae) ; Hampson, 1897, Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1897 : 229; [NACL, 67]
Scoparia (Scopariini) ; [AUCL]


[sp-1.jpg] 580x447 (~26Kb) FINLAND, Ab: Suomusjärvi, 669:31, 29.8.1999, Photo © Markku Savela

The exact identification of this species is still unknown, but tentatively assumed to belong into this group.



Scoparia luteolaris (Scopoli, 1772)
CEU, SEU. See [About maps]

Scoparia manifestella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1848)
CEU, SEEU. See [About maps]

Scoparia dicteella Rebel, 1916
SEEU. See [About maps]

fiScoparia subfusca Haworth, 1811
EU. See [About maps] Scoparia subfusca, Svenska fjärilar [SVF]
Scoparia subfusca, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Scoparia subfusca, UK Moths [Ian Kimber]
Misidentified/misapplied:
cembrella; auct. nec Linnaeus, 1761
[subfusca-1U.jpg] identification uncertain 469x662 (~93Kb) Russia: Moscow area (36°25'E, 56°00'N), 12.07.2007, Photo © D. Smirnov

Larva on Picris, Tussilago



Scoparia basistrigalis Knaggs, 1866
EU. See [About maps] Scoparia basistrigalis, Svenska fjärilar [SVF]
Scoparia basistrigalis, UK Moths [Ian Kimber]
[basistrigalis-1f.jpg] 400x640 (~104Kb) female Russia, Moscow area, 5.7.2006 © D. Smirnov


Scoparia gallica Peyerimhoff, 1873
SWEU. See [About maps]

fiScoparia ambigualis (Treitschke, 1829)
EU. See [About maps] Scoparia ambigualis, Svenska fjärilar [SVF]
Scoparia ambigualis, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Scoparia ambigualis, UK Moths [Ian Kimber]
[ambigualis-1.jpg] 640x501 (~48Kb) Littleborough, England, 9.7.1998, Photo © Ian Kimber

Larva on (moss)



fiScoparia ancipitella (La Harpe, 1855)
NEU, CEU. See [About maps] ulmella (Knaggs, 1867)
Scoparia ancipitella, Svenska fjärilar [SVF]

Scoparia conicella (La Harpe, 1863)
CEU. See [About maps] Scoparia conicella, Svenska fjärilar [SVF]
Scoparia conicella, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]

Scoparia perplexella (Zeller, 1839)
SEEU. See [About maps]

fiScoparia pyralella (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)
EU. See [About maps] arundinata (Thunberg, 1792)
dubitalis Hübner, 1796; Samml. eur. Schmett. [6]: [?]49, : pl. 32, f. 207
Scoparia dubitalis var. ivanalis Krulikovsky, 1909; Rev. russ. ent. 9 (1-2) : 113
Scoparia pyralella, Svenska fjärilar [SVF]
Scoparia pyralella, UK Moths [Ian Kimber]

Larva on Senecio?


Scoparia staudingeralis (Mabille, 1869)
SEU. See [About maps]

Scoparia ingratella (Zeller, 1846)
CEU, SEU. See [About maps]
The "NA" species-group

Scoparia rigidalis Barnes & McDunnough, 1912
Scoparia rigidalis ; [NACL, #4708]

Scoparia denigata Dyar, 1929
Scoparia denigata ; [NACL, #4709]

Scoparia normalis Dyar, 1904
Scoparia normalis, Moth Photographers Group [MPG]
Scoparia normalis ; [NACL, #4710]

Scoparia palloralis Dyar, 1906
Scoparia obispalis Dyar, 1906
= ; [NACL, #4711]
Scoparia cervalis McDunnough, 1927
= ; [NACL, #4711]
Scoparia palloralis, Moth Photographers Group [MPG]
Scoparia palloralis ; [NACL, #4711]

Scoparia californialis Munroe, 1972
Scoparia californialis ; [NACL, #4712]

Scoparia apachealis Munroe, 1972
Scoparia apachealis, Moth Photographers Group [MPG]
Scoparia apachealis ; [NACL, #4713]
S. a. pinalensis Munroe, 1972
Scoparia apachealis pinalensis ; [NACL, #4713a]
S. a. utalis Munroe, 1972
Scoparia apachealis utalis ; [NACL, #4713b]

Scoparia ruidosalis Munroe, 1972
Scoparia ruidosalis ; [NACL, #4714]

Scoparia blanchardi Munroe, 1972
Scoparia blanchardi, Moth Photographers Group [MPG]
Scoparia blanchardi ; [NACL, #4715]

Scoparia biplagialis Walker, 1866
Scoparia libella Grote, 1878
= ; [NACL, #4716]
Scoparia biplagialis, Moth Photographers Group [MPG]
Scoparia biplagialis ; [NACL, #4716]
Scoparia biplagialis bellaeislae ; [NACL, #4716a]
Scoparia biplagialis fernaldalis ; [NACL, #4716b]
Scoparia alaskalis Barnes & Benjamin, 1922
= ; [NACL, #4716c]
Scoparia biplagialis pacificalis ; [NACL, #4716c]
S. b. afognakalis Munroe, 1972
Scoparia biplagialis afognakalis ; [NACL, #4716d]

Scoparia penumbralis Dyar, 1906
Scoparia penumbralis, Moth Photographers Group [MPG]
Scoparia penumbralis ; [NACL, #4717]

Scoparia cinereomedia Dyar, 1904
Scoparia truncatalis McDunnough, 1922
= ; [NACL, #4718]
Scoparia cinereomedia, Moth Photographers Group [MPG]
Scoparia cinereomedia ; [NACL, #4718]

Scoparia basalis Walker, 1866
Scoparia basalis, Moth Photographers Group [MPG]
Scoparia basalis ; [NACL, #4719]

Scoparia dominicki Munroe, 1972
Scoparia dominicki, Moth Photographers Group [MPG]
Scoparia dominicki ; [NACL, #4720]

Scoparia huachuacalis Munroe, 1972
Scoparia huachuacalis ; [NACL, #4721]

Scoparia pusilla Dyar, 1914
Panama, .... See [About maps] Scoparia pusilla Dyar, 1914; Proc. U.S. nat. Mus. 47 (2050) : 320 (?preocc. Scoparia pusilla Rosenstock, 1885), TL: Cabima

The "AU" species-group

Scoparia australialis Guenée, 1854
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia australialis ; [AUCL]

Scoparia exhibitalis Walker, 1865
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia exhibitalis ; [AUCL]

Scoparia crocospila Turner, 1922
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia crocospila ; [AUCL]

Scoparia axiolecta Turner, 1922
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia axiolecta ; [AUCL]

Scoparia aphrodes Meyrick, 1884
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia aphrodes, Lepidoptera Larvae of Australia [Don Herbison-Evans]
Scoparia aphrodes ; [AUCL]

Scoparia melanoxantha Turner, 1922
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia melanoxantha ; [AUCL]

Scoparia eutacta Turner, 1931
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia eutacta ; [AUCL]

Scoparia epicryma Meyrick, 1884
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia epicryma ; [AUCL]

Scoparia synapta Meyrick, 1884
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia synapta ; [AUCL]

Scoparia chiasta Meyrick, 1884
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia chiasta ; [AUCL]

Scoparia protorthra Meyrick, 1885
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia protorthra, Lepidoptera Larvae of Australia [Don Herbison-Evans]
Scoparia protorthra ; [AUCL]

Scoparia objurgalis Guenée, 1854
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia objurgalis ; [AUCL]

Scoparia homala Meyrick, 1884
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia homala ; [AUCL]

Scoparia syntaracta Meyrick, 1884
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia syntaracta ; [AUCL]

Scoparia oxygona Meyrick, 1897
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia oxygona ; [AUCL]

Scoparia perierga Meyrick, 1884
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia perierga ; [AUCL]

Scoparia gomphota Meyrick, 1884
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia gomphota ; [AUCL]

Scoparia emmetropis Turner, 1915
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia emmetropis ; [AUCL]

Scoparia tristicta Turner, 1922
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia tristicta ; [AUCL]

Scoparia eremitis Meyrick, 1884
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia eremitis ; [AUCL]

Scoparia ochrophara Turner, 1915
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia ochrophara ; [AUCL]

Scoparia niphetodes Turner, 1931
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia niphetodes, Lepidoptera Larvae of Australia [Don Herbison-Evans]
Scoparia niphetodes ; [AUCL]

Scoparia hypoxantha Lower, 1896
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia hypoxantha ; [AUCL]

Scoparia platymera Lower, 1905
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia platymera ; [AUCL]

Scoparia eumeles Meyrick, 1884
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia eumeles ; [AUCL]

Scoparia gethosyna Turner, 1922
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia gethosyna ; [AUCL]

Scoparia philonephes (Meyrick, 1884)
AU. See [About maps] Xeroscopa philonephes Meyrick, 1884
Scoparia philonephes ; [AUCL]

Scoparia favilliferella (Walker, 1866)
AU. See [About maps] Nephopteryx[sic] favilliferella Walker, 1866
Xeroscopa encausta Meyrick, 1884
= ; [AUCL]
Scoparia favilliferella ; [AUCL]

Scoparia leuconota (Lower, 1902)
AU. See [About maps] Eclipsiodes leuconota Lower, 1902
Scoparia leuconota ; [AUCL]

Scoparia epigypsa (Lower, 1902)
AU. See [About maps] Eclipsiodes epigypsa Lower, 1902
Scoparia epigypsa ; [AUCL]

Scoparia stenopa Lower, 1902
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia stenopa ; [AUCL]

Scoparia cleodoralis (Walker, 1859)
AU. See [About maps] Scopula cleodoralis Walker, 1859
Scoparia cleodoralis ; [AUCL]

Scoparia plagiotis Meyrick, 1887
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia plagiotis ; [AUCL]

Scoparia ithyntis Turner, 1922
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia ithyntis ; [AUCL]

Scoparia anaplecta Meyrick, 1884
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia anaplecta ; [AUCL]

Scoparia arcta Lucas, 1898
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia arcta ; [AUCL]

Scoparia threnodes Meyrick, 1887
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia threnodes ; [AUCL]

Scoparia anthracias Meyrick, 1884
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia anthracias ; [AUCL]

Scoparia deliniens Lucas, 1898
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia deliniens ; [AUCL]

Scoparia anisophragma Lower, 1901
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia anisophragma ; [AUCL]

Scoparia charopoea Turner, 1908
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia charopoea ; [AUCL]

Scoparia spelaea Meyrick, 1884
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia pusilla Rosenstock, 1885; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 16 : 427
= ; [AUCL]
Scoparia spelaea, Lepidoptera Larvae of Australia [Don Herbison-Evans]
Scoparia spelaea ; [AUCL]

Scoparia argolina (Lower, 1902)
AU. See [About maps] Eclipsiodes argolina Lower, 1902
Scoparia argolina ; [AUCL]

Scoparia citrochroa (Turner, 1908)
AU. See [About maps] Myriostephes citrochroa Turner, 1908
Scoparia citrochroa ; [AUCL]

Scoparia paracycla (Lower, 1902)
AU. See [About maps] Tetraprosopus paracycla Lower, 1902
Metasia adoxodes Turner, 1908
= ; [AUCL]
Scoparia paracycla ; [AUCL]

Scoparia susanae Lower, 1900
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia susanae ; [AUCL]

Scoparia crypserythra (Lower, 1901)
AU. See [About maps] Eclipsiodes crypserythra Lower, 1901
Scoparia crypserythra ; [AUCL]

Scoparia oxycampyla (Turner, 1937)
AU. See [About maps] Platytes oxycampyla Turner, 1937; Proc. R. Soc. Qd 48 : 66, TL: Queensland
Scoparia? oxycampyla ; Bleszynski, 1970, Tijdschr. Ent. 113 : 26
Scoparia oxycampyla ; [AUCL]

Scoparia australiensis (Hampson, 1898)
W.Australia, Queensland. See [About maps] Gonodiscus australiensis Hampson, 1898; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1898 : 606, pl. 49, f. 1, TL: W.Australia, Sherlock R.; Queensland, Coomoo
Scoparia australiensis ; [AUCL]

Scoparia contempta (Turner, 1927)
Tasmania Platytes contempta Turner, 1927; Pap. & Proc. R. Soc. Tasm. 1926: 120, TL: Tasmania
Phycita? contempta ; Bleszynski, 1970, Tijdschr. Ent. 113 : 26
Scoparia contempta ; [AUCL]

Scoparia acropola Meyrick, 1884
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia acropola ; [AUCL]

Scoparia nephelitis (Meyrick, 1887)
AU. See [About maps] Xeroscopa nephelitis Meyrick, 1887
Scoparia nephelitis ; [AUCL]

Scoparia erythroneura (Turner, 1937)
AU. See [About maps] Platytes erythroneura Turner, 1937; Proc. R. Soc. Qd 48 : 66, TL: Victoria
Eclipsiides? erythroneura ; Bleszynski, 1970, Tijdschr. Ent. 113 : 26
Scoparia erythroneura ; [AUCL]

Scoparia meyrickii (Butler, 1882)
AU. See [About maps] Tetraprosopus meyrickii Butler, 1882; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) 9 (50) : 97, TL: Australia
Scoparia meyrickii ; [AUCL]

Scoparia ischnoptera Turner, 1922
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia ischnoptera ; [AUCL]

Scoparia striatalis (Hampson, 1907)
AU. See [About maps] Eclipsiodes striatalis Hampson, 1907
Scoparia striatalis ; [AUCL]

Scoparia mesogramma Lower, 1900
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia mesogramma ; [AUCL]

Scoparia leucomela Lower, 1893
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia leucomela ; [AUCL]

Scoparia pediopola (Turner, 1937)
AU. See [About maps] Platytes pediopola Turner, 1937; Proc. R. Soc. Qd 48 : 66, TL: Queensland
Eclipsioides pediopola ; Bleszynski, 1970, Tijdschr. Ent. 113 : 26
Scoparia pediopola ; [AUCL]

Scoparia lichenopa Lower, 1897
AU. See [About maps] Scoparia lichenopa ; [AUCL]

The ? species-group

Scoparia antarcticalis Staudinger, 1899
Patagonia. See [About maps] Scoparia antarcticalis Staudinger, 1899; Naturhist. Mus. Hamburg 2 (6) : 106

Scoparia biradiellus (Mabille, 1885)
Crambus biradiellus Mabille, 1885; Bull. Phil. Paris. (7) 9: 70
Crambus biradiellus ; Staudinger, 1899, Naturhist. Mus. Hamburg 2 (6) : 107

Scoparia ignicola (Staudinger, 1899)
Crambus ignicola Staudinger, 1899; Naturhist. Mus. Hamburg 2 (6) : 108, f. 9, TL: Uschuaia

Scoparia glauculalis Hampson, 1897
Falkland Is. Scoparia glauculalis Hampson, 1897; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1897 : 233, TL: Falkland Is.

Scoparia atropicta Hampson, 1897
Scoparia atropicta Hampson, 1897; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1897 : 233, TL: U.S.A

Scoparia stereostigma Dyar, 1918
Mexico. See [About maps] Scoparia stereostigma Dyar, 1918; Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 54 (2239) : 369, TL: Jalapa, Mexico

Scoparia anadonta Dyar, 1918
Mexico. See [About maps] Scoparia anadonta Dyar, 1918; Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 54 (2239) : 369, TL: Real del Monte, Hidalgo, Mexico

Scoparia anagantis Dyar, 1918
Mexico. See [About maps] Scoparia anagantis Dyar, 1918; Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 54 (2239) : 370, TL: Zacualpan, Mexico

Scoparia cyclophora Dyar, 1918
Mexico. See [About maps] Scoparia cyclophora Dyar, 1918; Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 54 (2239) : 370, TL: Zacualpan, Mexico


7.1.2013 (97)

References:
[AUCL]
Nielsen & Rangsi, 1996; Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia; CSIRO, Australia
[About maps]
Warning! The maps are automatically generated from the textual information, and the process does not always produce acceptable result; See about maps for more info.
[D. Smirnov]
Russia, Moscow; e-mail: D. Smirnov
[Don Herbison-Evans]
and Stella A. Crossley; Lepidoptera Larvae of Australia; e-mail: Don Herbison-Evans; e-mail: Don Herbison-Evans
[GlobIZ]
Global information system on pyraloidea; GlobIZ; Globales Informtationssystem Zünslerfalter; Note This information is not automatically synchronized with GlobIZ and can sometimes be lagging behind.
[HBN]
Francis Hemming, 1937; HÜBNER, A bibliographical and systematic account of the entomological works of Jacob Hübner and of the supplements thereto by Carl Geyer, Gottfried Franz von Frölich and Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer, Vol 1 & 2
[Ian Kimber]
http://www.ukmoths.force9.co.uk/
[LAMAS-NEO]
Gerardo Lamas; Bibliography of butterflies; An Annocated Bibliography of the Neotropical Butterflies and Skipper (Lepididoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea); Revised Electronic Edition (2007)
[MBE]
Moths and Butteflies of Europe; Paolo Mazzei, Diego Reggianti and Ilaria Pimpinelli; http://www.leps.it/
[MPG]
North American Moth Photographers Group
[NACL]
Hodges, 1983; Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico
[SVF]
Svenska fjärilar; Naturhistoriska riksmuseet; (Sweden)


Some related literature:
Bleszynski, 1970
New genera and species of tropical Crambinae (Studies on the Crambinae, Lepidoptera, Pyralidae. Part 48) Tijdschr. Ent. 113 : 1-26
Butler, 1882
On a small collection of Lepidoptera from Melbourne Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) 9 (50) : 84-103
Curtis, 1827
British Entomology; being Illustrations and Descriptions of the Genera of Insecta found in Great Britain and Ireland: Containing coloured Figures from Nature of the Most Rare and Beautiful Species, an in Many Instances of the Plants Upon Which They are Found British Entomology 1: pl. 1-50 (1824), 2: pl. 51-98 (1825), 3: pl. 99-146 (1826), 4: pl. 147-194 (1827), 5: pl. 195-241 (1828), 6: pl. 242-289 (1829), 7: pl. 290-337 (1830), 8: pl. 338-383 (1831), 9: pl. 384-433 (1832), 10: pl. 434-481 (1833), 11: pl. 482-529 (1834), 12: pl. 530-577 (1835), 13: pl. 578-625 (1836), 14: pl. 626-673 (1837), 15: pl. 674-721 (1838), 16: pl. 722-769 (1839)
Dyar, 1914
Report on the lepidoptera of the Smithsonian Biological Survey of the Canal Zone Proc. U.S. nat. Mus. 47 (2050) : 139-350
Dyar, 1918
Descriptions of new Lepidoptera from Mexico Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 54 (2239) : 335-372
Hampson, 1897
On the classification of two subfamilies of Moths of the family Pyralidae: the Hydrocampinae and Scoparianae Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1897 : 127-240
Hampson, 1898
A revision of the Moths of the subfamily Pyraustinae and family Pyralidae. Part 1 Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1898 : 590-761, pl. 49-50
Haworth, 1811
Lepidoptera Britannica, sistens digestimen novam lepidopterorum quae in Magna Britannica reperiunter ... adjunguntur dissertationes variae ad historiam naturalam spectantes Lepid. Britannica (1): 1-136 (1803), (2): 137-376 ([1809]), (3): 377-512 ([1811]), (4): 513-609 (1828)
Hübner, 1796
Sammlung europäischer Schmetterlinge. VI. Pyralides - Zunsler ("Fünfte Band" - part) Samml. eur. Schmett. [6] : 1-30 (1796), : pl. 1-20, f. 1-134 (1796), : pl. 21, f. 135-141 (1796-1799), : pl. 22-23, f. 142-154 (1800-1809), : pl. 24-27, f. 155-176 (1811-1813), : pl. 28-29, f. 177-186 (1818-1819), : pl. 30, f. 187-192 (1823), : pl. 31, f. 193-200 (1828-1832), : pl. 32, f. 201-207 (1832-1833)
Krulikovsky, 1909
[russian] Rev. russ. ent. 9 (1-2) : 109-114
Mabille, 1885
Diagnoses de Lépidoptéres nouveaux Bull. Phil. Paris. (7) 9: 55-70
Meyrick, 1884
On the classification of the Australian Pyralidina Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1884 (1): 61-80, 1884 (3): 277-350, 1885 (4): 421-456
Rosenstock, 1885
Notes on Australian Lepidoptera, with descriptions of new Species Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 16 : 376-385, pl. 11, : 421-443
Staudinger, 1899
Lepidopteren. Hamburger Magalhaensische Sammelreise Naturhist. Mus. Hamburg 2 (6) : 1-117, pl., f. 1-27
Turner, 1937
New Australian Pyraloidea (Lepidoptera) Proc. R. Soc. Qd 48 : 61-88


If you have corrections, comments or information to add into these pages, just send mail to Markku Savela
Keep in mind that the taxonomic information is copied from various sources, and may include many inaccuracies. Expert help is welcome.